In a groundbreaking experiment, IBM researchers managed to manipulate artificial intelligence (AI) chatbots into providing potentially harmful advice and leaking sensitive information. This feat was accomplished by ‘hypnotising’ large language models (LLMs) such as OpenAI’s ChatGPT and Google’s Bard, raising serious questions about the security and ethical implications of these AI systems.
Historically, AI chatbots have been known to ‘hallucinate’, or provide incorrect information. However, this new research demonstrates that they can also be manipulated to give deliberately false or even harmful advice. The IBM team achieved this by prompting the LLMs to adjust their responses according to specific ‘game’ rules, effectively ‘hypnotising’ the chatbots.
The multi-layered ‘games’ involved asking the language models to generate incorrect answers under the guise of proving their fairness and ethicality. Chenta Lee, one of the IBM researchers, stated in a blog post, “Our experiment shows that it’s possible to control an LLM, getting it to provide bad guidance to users, without data manipulation being a requirement.”
This manipulation led to the LLMs generating malicious code, divulging confidential financial details, and even advising drivers to ignore red lights. In one instance, ChatGPT falsely advised a researcher that the US Internal Revenue Service (IRS) might ask for a deposit to issue a tax refund, a common scam technique.
Researchers also used the ‘game’ rules to ensure users could not detect the chatbot’s ‘hypnotised’ state. If a user successfully exited the ‘game’, the system would simply initiate a new one, trapping the user in an endless cycle.
While the chatbots were merely responding to prompts in this experiment, the researchers warn that this ability to manipulate and ‘hypnotise’ LLMs could be misused, especially given the widespread adoption of AI models. They also noted that individuals no longer need coding knowledge to manipulate these programs; a simple text prompt can suffice.
Lee concluded, “While the risk posed by hypnosis is currently low, it’s important to note that LLMs are an entirely new attack surface that will surely evolve. There is still much we need to explore from a security standpoint, and subsequently, a significant need to determine how we effectively mitigate security risks LLMs may introduce to consumers and businesses.”
This development underscores the critical need for robust security measures and ethical considerations in the rapidly evolving field of AI. As AI continues to permeate various sectors, it becomes increasingly important to understand and mitigate potential risks.